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- Subject: example Lua game
- From: Thatcher Ulrich <tu@...>
- Date: Mon, 5 Nov 2001 18:16:59 -0500 (EST)
I spent a couple days messing around with Lua + LuaSWIG + SDL, and
produced a little video game. The SDL wrapper may be of interest for
anyone interested in prototyping games, or for introducing Lua to
programmers with short attention spans who just want to make games :)
A .zip with the source & bitmaps, along with a Win32 .exe can be gotten here:
Grab the "meteor_shower-xxx" file. You can also grab the source from the
CVS of that SF project, or browse it on the SourceForge site. I
didn't put the LuaSWIG-generated files in CVS though.
README.txt for the game is quoted below, including some of my
observations on programming in Lua.
A prototype of a 2D sprite game, written entirely in Lua, with SDL.
by Thatcher Ulrich <email@example.com>
Type "go" to start the game. Use the mouse to play. Press ESC or Q
The source code of this game has been donated by me to the public
domain. Do whatever you want with it. This covers the files
meteor_shower.lua, the *.bmp files, and the luaSDL.cpp file.
The SDL.i file is derived from header files from SDL
(http://www.libsdl.org), which is copyrighted and licensed under the
LGPL. shadow40.lua is part of the LuaSWIG project. It's copyrighted
and licensed under the GPL. See the project website at
(http://luagnome.free.fr) for details.
SDL_wrap.c is generated automatically by the LuaSWIG tool. See its
copyright notice, and the SWIG project site at http://www.swig.org for
Asteroids is one of my all-time favorite games. I still play fairly
often via emulation. For a long time I've wondered what it would be
like if the rocks had gravity and collision detection. Meanwhile,
lately I've been messing around with the Lua scripting language, SWIG,
etc. So as a test of Lua, I thought I'd prototype a variation on
Asteroids and try some of those ideas. The result might be a better
screen-saver than a game, but it's probably good for a few yuks.
The high-concept back story is that you're piloting one of those enemy
flying saucers from Asteroids, and you've been caught in a meteor
shower. Use the mouse to drop your saucer into realspace, and then
fly around the screen and avoid the rocks. You get points every time
a rock breaks apart. You get free ships at various score intervals.
There's no gun or anything; the game is pure avoidance/survival. When
you're sick of it, press ESC or Q to quit.
For fullscreen mode, different resolutions, etc, you're welcome to
hack the source code in meteor_shower.lua .
* I made virtually no concession to execution speed. Everything down
to the API layer is written in Lua, which is dynamically typed and
interpreted. So the 2d vector math does type-checking and
heap-allocates intermediate garbage values all over the place. It'll
probably run like crap on anything slower than 1GHz. Plus I didn't
think much about speeding up the algorithms -- it does N^2 searches
for collision detection & gravity interactions. You'll probably see
it bog down when a lot of asteroids get spawned at once.
* I used LuaSWIG (http://luagnome.free.fr) to create a nearly-complete
binding to the SDL media API. SWIG (http://www.swig.org) is a wrapper
generator that takes marked-up C/C++ header files for an API, and
generates the necessary wrapper code to interface any of several
scripting languages to the API. It's pretty cool. Unfortunately you
can't quite feed raw C/C++ headers in if they contain things like
bitfields or other tricky stuff, but the fixup isn't too difficult.
* Lua, and dynamically-typed languages in general, don't do as much
compile-time checking of code as e.g. C++. This is bad because it
lets mistakes lurk for longer before they're discovered. Lua also has
a wart (also common to many other scripting languages) in that it
implicitly creates global variables if you use a variable name without
declaring it. This is great for very short code snippets and scripts,
but it's bad for real programs, since it's easy to create functions
that are mistakenly coupled together via globals, or misspell variable
names, etc. There's a way to disable that behavior, and make you
declare globals explicitly, but I didn't do that in this program,
which later caused some bugs for me.
* Lua could really use a good source-level debugger. The hooks are
all there, and there are some debuggers available, but they're not
very slick yet. I don't think many people write big programs in Lua.
When Lua hits a run-time error or assert, it spits out a stack trace,
which usually has the necessary info, so I didn't have too much
trouble with my little program. But there is some great latent
capability in there, a la edit-and-continue, which isn't quite
accessible without some more glue or tools or something.
* Lua makes a lot of things stupidly easy. Like, a table of shared
sprites was trivial to retrofit. Hacking on this little game was
really pleasant; the coding felt very immediate, and once I got going
I didn't have to think much about a lot of details. The syntax in
general is very clean and straightforward, IMO.
On balance I'd have to say Lua + LuaSWIG + SDL made a really nice
environment for prototyping a 2D game. I'll probably use it again to
try other game ideas. If you're interested in Lua I'd recommend
playing around with the meteor_shower.lua source. If you run the
luaSDL executable by itself, you can interactively type in Lua code.
If you pass it command-line args, it assumes the args are files with
Lua code, and tries to execute them. SDL is a pretty full-featured
DirectX-like media library. Have a look at SDL.i for the API details,
and also there's an online manual at http://www.libsdl.org . Most of
the API features are directly accessible from Lua.