After reading this tutorial, it's very strongly recommended to read the manual on patterns, so you know everything it offers.
First we will use the
string.find function, which finds the first occurrence of a pattern in a string and returns start and end indices of the first and last characters that matched the text:
> = string.find('banana', 'an') -- find 1st occurance of 'an' (letters are matched literally) 2 3 > = string.find('banana', 'lua') -- 'lua' will not be found nil
But literally matching text isn't that useful, so patterns have the concept of character classes. A character class is a pattern that matches one of a set of characters. For example,
. is a character class that matches any character:
> = string.find("abcdefg", 'b..') 2 4
We can now use these indices to get the matched text, but there's a better way: the
string.match function. It returns the matched text, or nil if te pattern is not found:
> = string.match("abcdefg", 'b..') bcd
Patterns have a few pre-defined classes, use them as "%x", where "x" is the letter identifying the class:
> = string.match("foo 123 bar", '%d%d%d') -- %d matches a digit 123 > = string.match("text with an Uppercase letter", '%u') -- %u matches an uppercase letter U
You can also create your own classes by wrapping a group of characters in square brackets. This will match one of the characters. If the first character inside the brackets is
^, then it will match a character not in the group.
> = string.match("abcd", '[bc][bc]') bc > = string.match("abcd", '[^ad]') b > = string.match("123", '[0-9]') -- you can specify a range of characters using - 1
Even with character classes this is still very limiting, because we can only match strings with a fixed length. To solve this, patterns support these four repetition operators:
*Match the previous character (or class) zero or more times, as many times as possible.
+Match the previous character (or class) one or more times, as many times as possible.
-Match the previous character (or class) zero or more times, as few times as possible.
?Make the previous character (or class) optional.
We'll start with
?, since it's the simplest:
> = string.match("examples", 'examples?') examples > = string.match("example", 'examples?') example > = string.match("example", 'examples') nil
Now an example of
+. Note how it's used with a class, so it can match a sequence of different characters:
> = string.match("this is some text with a number 12345 in it", '%d+') 12345
* can match nothing:
> = string.match("one |two| three", '|.*|') |two| > = string.match("one || three", '|.*|') || > = string.match("one || three", '|.+|') nil
A common mistake with
* is not realizing that they match as much as possible, which may not be the desired result. One way to fix this is using
> = string.match("one |two| three |four| five", '|.*|') |two| three |four| > = string.match("one |two| three |four| five", '|.-|') |two| > = string.match("one |two| three |four| five", '|[^|]*|') -- another solution can be to not let the contents match the delimiter |two|
-, you need to remember to "anchor" it from both sides, otherwise it will match nothing (since it tries to match as little as possible):
> = string.match("abc", 'a.*') abc > = string.match("abc", 'a.-') -- the .- part matches nothing a > = string.match("abc", 'a.-$') -- the $ matches the end of the string abc > = string.match("abc", '^.-b') -- the ^ matches the start of the string ab
$, which match the start and end of the string. They're not just for use with
-, you can just prepend the pattern with
^to make it match at the start, append
$to make it match at the end, and wrap it in both (like the example above) to make it match the whole string.
Finally, you might be thinking how to match all these special characters literally. The solution is to prepend them with a % character:
> = string.match("%*^", '%%%*%^') %*^
What if you want to get certain pieces out of a string of text? This can be done by wrapping parts of a pattern in
( ), and the contents of each of these captures will be returned from
> = string.match("foo: 123 bar: 456", '(%a+):%s*(%d+)%s+(%a+):%s*(%d+)') -- %a: letter %s: whitespace foo 123 bar 456
Especially if you're used to other languages with regular expressions, you might expect to be able to do stuff like this:
'(foo)+' -- match the string "foo" repeated one or more times '(foo|bar)' -- match either the string "foo" or the string "bar"
Unfortunately Lua patterns do not support this, only single characters can be repeated or chosen between, not sub-patterns or strings. The solution is to either use multiple patterns and write some custom logic, use a regular expression library like lrexlib or Lua PCRE, or use LPeg . LPeg is a powerful text parsing library for Lua based on Parsing Expression Grammar . It offers functions to create and combine patterns in Lua code, and also a language somewhat like Lua patterns or regular expressions to conveniently create small parsers.
Again, now that you have an idea of how patterns work, see the patterns manual to find out all the possibilities.