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Hrm, so I'm starting to doubt that a patch file is the best way of sharing this hack.  My hunch is that most people who might want it are probably already using hacked versions of lparser.c, so, a machine readable diff isn't going to be ideal :) 

But the code is easy enough to talk through, so here's a quick implementation-level description.

The entry point for the table shorthand is in lparser.c : field(), where you can hook into the table constructor by adding a switch case:

static void field (LexState *ls, struct ConsControl *cc) {
  /* field -> listfield | recfield */
  switch(ls->t.token) {
    case TK_CONCAT: {

Implementing the shorthand is then just a matter of writing table_shorthand(), a modified version of rectfield() that gets both the key and the value from the _expression_ following '..'.   Such a modification is fairly easy, once you realize that the lexer stores semantic info for the most recent string literal, name, or numeric constant inside ls->t.seminfo.  

In the case that the most recent seminfo is a numeric constant, we probably want to throw a syntax error.  It's unclear if {..77} should be interpreted as {[77]=77}, or {["77"]=77}, and, neither interpretation seems likely to be that useful in practice.  

But, if the most recent stored seminfo is a string, it's probably a sensible choice for our key. 
/* a quick shorthand hack that transforms {..f} to {f=f}. */
static void table_shorthand (LexState *ls, struct ConsControl *cc) {
  expdesc key, val;
  FuncState *fs = ls->fs;
  int reg;
  int rkkey;
  checklimit(fs, cc->nh, MAX_INT, "items in a constructor");
  expr(ls, &val);
  reg = ls->fs->freereg;
  if(ls->t.seminfo.ts) {
    codestring(ls, &key, ls->t.seminfo.ts);
  else {
    luaX_syntaxerror(ls, ".. shorthand used with a non-string _expression_.");
  rkkey = luaK_exp2RK(fs, &key);
  luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SETTABLE, cc->t->, rkkey, luaK_exp2RK(fs, &val));
  fs->freereg = reg;  /* free registers */

Implementing the function shorthand is a little trickier.  Rather than calling expr() from explist(), we will call dup_expr(), an expr() wrapper that will check for and handle the .. shorthand.  However, the implementation of dup_expr() is necessarily ugly, because we won't be ready to insert the seminfo string into the call stack after we're finished parsing the _expression_.  As I understand Lua's bytecode generation, the best way to do this is by reserving a spot before we start the _expression_ parse, and then using a kludge to convince luaK_exp2nextreg to write the string into the empty slot.

/* another parser hack.  this one turns foo( into foo("bar",bar). */
static void dup_expr(LexState *ls, expdesc *v, int *np) {
  int dup = testnext(ls,TK_CONCAT); 
  FuncState *fs = ls->fs;
  int reg;
  if(dup) {
    luaK_reserveregs(fs, 1);
  if(dup) {
    if(ls->t.seminfo.ts) {
      int old_free = fs->freereg;
      expdesc varname;
      codestring(ls, &varname, ls->t.seminfo.ts);
      /* trick luaK_exp2nextreg into writting to the */
      /* previously reserved register.  i believe this is safe.. */
      luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, &varname);
    else luaX_syntaxerror(ls, "stringification shorthand used on a non-string _expression_.");

static int explist (LexState *ls, expdesc *v) {
  /* explist -> expr { `,' expr } */
  int n = 1;  /* at least one _expression_ */
  dup_expr(ls, v,&n);
  while (testnext(ls, ',')) {
    luaK_exp2nextreg(ls->fs, v);
    dup_expr(ls, v,&n);
  return n;

I should note that my own parser is based on the 5.2 source -- but, I suspect that both hacks would also work with 5.1.  If anyone tries it, let me know whether you have any success :)