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Thanks for your answer Mike.

Mike Pall wrote:
This is easy if there's an analyzable shadow copy of it written
in Lua. The primary function, written in C, assembler or
pre-compiled Lua, provides adequate performance for the fallback

I thought about such approach: it is simple, elegant but somehow error prone. One need to maintain coherence between C-function and shadow copy. But Jikes highly benefits from the possibilty to optimize runtime procedures in the same context as the whole program, with your VM I hope Lua will be able to benefit from the same thing.

(called by the interpreter or not inlined).

I am highly interested how inline is implemented. There are to cases here: "upfunctions" inlining and global function inlining. Both require checks and mechanism to fallback into non-optimized native code or even bytecode. Lets consider some code snippet:

local f = m.f

local function g(...)

During execution, after the closure creation f can be inlined (so there is possibility that different closures will not share the same optimized function body). Still if someone assigns to f then this inlining becomes incorrect and g needs to be deoptimized. So we need some kind of write barrier here. I thought about it sometime ago, but have not managed to invent an elegant implementation (only pointer comparison before inlined body, but this approach is not usable with moving GC). Also it is interesting how fallback can be implemented.

The global inlining raises even more questions, because closure environment can be modified. Also pointer check becomes more expensive.

I am interested both in theoretical and practical part of this, any links and hints will be highly appreciated.