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  Why add the parent directory?  This just translates to

        C:/a/b/?/d/?.lua [1]

Yes it does. The c directory comes in because in luaconf the path is defined relative to the lua executable directory for example. so C:/a/b/c is the directory path of the lua executable which gets substituted when the lua executable is started and ../?/d/?.lua is the path that was placed relative to it. So package.path shows the path like that. 

> Then it require("mod") searches for
> C:\a\b\c\..\mod\d\mod.lua  -> C:\a\b\mod\d\mod.lua
> This is good.

  What is the extra directory buying you?  I fail to see the benefit of an
extra directory.

> require("mod.submod") searches for
> C:\a\b\c\..\mod\submod\d\mod\submod.lua
> It would be much better I think if it searched:
> C:\a\b\c\..\mod\d\mod\submod.lua

  What about a module named "org.conman.syslog"?

The thought is that sub modules would reside inside the sub directories where the main module resides. So for org.conman.syslog, org is the main module and then syslog is the submodule so it should translate to:

This allows for example just pull the whole directory structure of many github projects and have them available immediately for example the following directory structure:

   - src   (project1.lua)
        - project1    (submod1.lua)
   - src   (project2.lua)
   - src   (project3.lua)
 lua53  (lua.exe)

if I have ../?/src/?.lua in my package.path then all these work:

But require("project1.submod1") does not work.