###### Kaplan-Meier Estimate

A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Proportional Hazards Models

###### Prognosis

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Survival Rate

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Radiation Leukemia Virus

###### Disease-Free Survival

###### Survival Analysis

A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Acetic Anhydrides

###### Risk Factors

###### Rhodobacter sphaeroides

###### Neoplasm Staging

###### Herpesvirus 1, Suid

###### Prospective Studies

###### Molecular Sequence Data

Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

###### Models, Statistical

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Algorithms

###### Computer Simulation

###### Prevalence

###### Models, Genetic

###### Likelihood Functions

###### Bayes Theorem

A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

###### Models, Biological

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Incidence

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Risk Assessment

###### Breeding

###### Monte Carlo Method

In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Linear Models

###### Population Surveillance

###### Cost-Benefit Analysis

A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.

###### Age Distribution

###### Pregnancy

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

###### Epidemiologic Methods

###### Genetics, Population

###### Health Surveys

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Risk

###### Data Collection

###### Questionnaires

###### Health Care Costs

The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.

###### Environmental Monitoring

###### Cost of Illness

The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.

###### Confidence Intervals

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Sex Factors

Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

###### Markov Chains

###### Evolution, Molecular

###### Sample Size

###### Geography

###### Quality-Adjusted Life Years

###### Odds Ratio

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

###### Environmental Exposure

###### Occupational Exposure

###### Quantitative Trait, Heritable

###### Uncertainty

###### Research Design

###### Body Weight

###### Costs and Cost Analysis

###### Mathematics

###### Seasons

###### Sex Distribution

###### Cattle

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Models, Economic

###### Genotype

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Software

###### Models, Econometric

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Poisson Distribution

###### Radiation Dosage

The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

###### Selection, Genetic

###### Biometry

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Registries

###### Longitudinal Studies

###### Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Life Expectancy

###### Demography

###### Environment

###### Population Dynamics

###### HIV Infections

###### Air Pollutants

###### Neoplasms

###### Forecasting

###### Epidemiologic Studies

###### Meta-Analysis as Topic

A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

###### Selection Bias

###### Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### Sequence Analysis, DNA

###### Ecosystem

###### Radiometry

###### Canada

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Calibration

###### European Continental Ancestry Group

###### Statistical Distributions

The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

###### Phenotype

###### Gene Frequency

###### Weaning

###### Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Fossils

###### Genetic Markers

###### Mass Screening

###### Phantoms, Imaging

Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

###### Alleles

###### Reference Values

###### Species Specificity

The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

## p53, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis-related factors in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. (1/10675)

Thymic neuroendocrine tumors are biologically aggressive neoplasms with extensive local invasion and high mortality. Although various markers of cellular proliferation and apoptosis have correlated with degrees of tumor differentiation in pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms, they have not been systematically studied in thymic neuroendocrine tumors. We immunostained 21 cases of thymic neuroendocrine tumors for p53, MIB-1, and the apoptosis-related markers Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax. By histological classification the cases were low-grade (nine cases), intermediate-grade (eight cases), and high-grade (four cases) thymic neuroendocrine tumors. p53 was expressed in five cases: 1/9 low grade, 3/8 intermediate grade, and 2/4 high grade. The mean cellular proliferation (MIB-1) was 7.1% (range 2-12%) in low-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, 6.1% (range 2-15%) in intermediate-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors, and 34.2% (range 2-80%) in high-grade thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Bcl-2 was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 5/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. Bcl-x was expressed in 16 cases: 7/9 low grade, 6/8 intermediate grade, and 3/4 high grade. Bax was expressed in 13 cases: 5/9 low grade, 4/8 intermediate grade, and 4/4 high grade. The presence of mutant p53 in the tumor was associated with a statistically significant decreased mean survival (P<0.05). In contrast, either by positive or negative staining or by the score technique (staining intensity x percentage of cells staining), the presence of Bcl-x was associated with an increased mean survival (P<0.05). Finally, a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 was also associated with an increased mean survival, as compared to a Bcl-x : Bax ratio >or=1 (P<0.05). Our study shows that p53 expression and certain apoptosis markers correlate with survival. The expression of these markers may account for differences in biological behavior. (+info)## Prognostic relevance of activated Akt kinase in node-negative breast cancer: a clinicopathological study of 99 cases. (2/10675)

Patients with lymphnode-negative breast cancer show a 10-year tumor recurrence rate of approximately 30%. Therefore, it is important to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further adjuvant therapy. For this purpose, we examined the activation state of two kinases important in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in a series of 99 node-negative breast cancer cases with a mean follow-up of 10 years: Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry using phospho-specific antibodies. The results were correlated with HER-2/neu expression, histological grading, receptor status, overall survival (OS) as well as with cell proliferation (Ki67 immunoreactivity, mitotic count) and tumor apoptosis assessed by TUNEL staining. Activation of Akt (pAkt) but not activation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) correlated with HER-2/neu overexpression (P<0.05) and was related to reduced tumor apoptosis (P<0.05). No association was found between pAkt or pERK1/2 with cell proliferation assessed by Ki67 and mitotic count (MC). Survival analysis of receptor status, HER2/neu expression, histological grading, MC and pAkt immunoexpression showed a significant correlation with decreased OS, but only pAkt reached statistical significance in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (P=0.015). Activation of Akt in node-negative breast cancer may indicate aggressive tumor behavior and may constitute an independent prognostic factor of OS. The determination of pAkt status may be of value in identifying high-risk patients, who would benefit from adjuvant therapy, and gives a rationale to investigate new therapy strategies by specific inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer. (+info)## Serum nucleosomes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Predictive and prognostic significance. (3/10675)

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that free DNA circulates in serum plasma of patients with cancer and that at least part is present in the form of oligo- and monucleosomes, a marker of cell death. Preliminary data has shown a good correlation between decrease of nucleosomes with response and prognosis. Here, we performed pre- and post-chemotherapy determinations of serum nucleosomes with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in a group of patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: From December 2000 to June 2001, 41 patients with cervical cancer staged as FIGO stages IB2-IIIB received three 21-day courses of carboplatin and paclitaxel, both administered at day 1; then, patients underwent radical hysterectomy. Nucleosomes were measured the day before (baseline), at day seven of the first course and day seven of the third course of chemotherapy. Values of nucleosomes were analyzed with regard to pathologic response and to time to progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: All patients completed chemotherapy, were evaluable for pathologic response, and had nucleosome levels determined. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 7-26 months), projected progression time and overall survival were 80.3 and 80.4%, respectively. Mean differential values of nucleosomes were lower in the third course as compared with the first course (p >0.001). The decrease in the third course correlated with pathologic response (p = 0.041). Survival analysis showed a statistically significant, better progression-free and survival time in patients who showed lower levels at the third course (p = 0.0243 and p = 0.0260, respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that nucleosome increase in the third course increased risk of death to 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 0.84-56.0). CONCLUSION: Serum nucleosomes may have a predictive role for response and prognostic significance in patients with cervical cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (+info)## Prognostic risk factors in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation. (4/10675)

The aim of the study was to identify prognostic factors that would differentiate patients with interstitial lung disease between those with and without a chance to survive until lung transplantation. A retrospective study was performed in patients with interstitial lung disease referred for lung transplantation between September 1999 and April 2005. The analysis included the demographic data, the time from referral to transplantation, the functional tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC, the PaO(2) at rest and after oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter), the count of NYHA functional classes, the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), the distance covered during a 6-min walk test, and the pathogens in the respiratory tract. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 - lung transplant candidates who survived until the successful procedure and Group 2 - lung transplant candidates who died while on the waiting list. There were statistical differences between the two groups in PaO2 after supplementation (P=0.005), EF (P=0.002), and the 6-min walk distance (P=0.001). It appears that simple functional tests of the cardiorespiratory system may define survival of patients with interstitial lung disease waiting for lung transplantation. (+info)## Quantitative flow cytometry of ZAP-70 levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome. (5/10675)

BACKGROUND: ZAP-70 has emerged as a potential pivotal prognostic marker for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which could replace immunoglobulin heavy chain mutation status. Although several flow cytometry assays have been described for assessing ZAP-70 in CLL, certain technical and scientific issues remain unsolved, which have prevented results of this crucial test from being reported, even in the best routine flow cytometry laboratories. In this report, we aimed to solve some of these issues by providing a computerized quantitative flow cytometric assay for ZAP-70 within the entire CLL population, which would be easy to perform and enable standardization between laboratories. METHODS: Intracellular ZAP-70 levels in CLL and normal B cells were assessed by molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF), employing Quantum FITC MESF calibration beads to establish a standard curve relating channel value to fluorescence intensity in MESF units and the QuickCal v. 2.2 program (www.bangslabs.com) and clinical relevance of the data was determined. RESULTS: The average ZAP-70 expression value in the CD19(+)/CD5(+) cells from 35 CLL patients was 103,701 MESF when compared with 12,621 MESF in B cells from 20 normal blood samples. "Low" and "high" ZAP-70 CLL subgroups were defined. Patients with "high ZAP-70 MESF" CLL had a shorter time to disease progression (P = 0.0005) and a more advanced clinical stage (P = 0.0018) when compared with patients in the "low ZAP-70 MESF" CLL subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: This quantitative analysis method can be employed to obtain a more specific and highly accurate assessment of ZAP-70 levels in CLL cells. The method can easily be standardized, in any routine flow laboratory, thereby improving reproducibility and reliability of ZAP-70 analysis. (+info)## Long-term outcome after Talent endograft implantation for aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: a multicenter retrospective study. (6/10675)

BACKGROUND: The development of newer-generation endografts for the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms has resulted in considerable improvements in clinical performance. However, long-term outcome data are still scarce. To assess long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after use of the Talent stent graft, a retrospective analysis was performed that was based on 165 patients treated with this endograft in Germany between October 1996 and December 1998. METHODS: Data were collected according to the recommendation of the ad hoc committee for standardized reporting practices in vascular surgery and were evaluated statistically by using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were treated with a Talent endograft in 9 German centers before December 31, 1998. Most were asymptomatic (94.5%), male (97.6%), and treated with a bifurcated graft (86.7%). Two patients (1.2%) died within 30 days, and 28 (17%) died during the follow-up period. The cause of death was aneurysm rupture in one case. Survival was 95.4% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 89% +/- 2.6% at 2 years, 78.1% +/- 3.6% at 5 years, and 76.2% +/- 4.1% at 7 years. Patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade IV had a significantly lower survival rate (24.9%) than those classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III (91.9% and 77.3%). During a mean follow-up period of 53.2 +/- 20.1 months (range, 1-84 months), 47 secondary procedures were performed in 31 patients (18.8%). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a freedom from secondary intervention of 94.7% +/- 1.8%, 81.7% +/- 3.3%, and 77.4% +/- 3.6% at 1, 3, and 7 years, respectively. The reason for secondary treatment was endograft thrombosis in 10 patients (6.1%), persisting primary endoleak in 9 (5.5%), late secondary endoleak in 6 (3.6%), graft migration in 3 (1.8%), aneurysm rupture in 2 (1.2%), and graft infection in 1 (0.6%). Device migration (> or =10 mm) occurred in seven patients (4.2%). Other graft changes, such as graft kinking (n = 4; 2.4%), fracture of metallic stents (n = 2; 1.2%), erosion of the longitudinal bar (n = 2; 1.2%), or modular component separation (n = 1; 0.6%), were rare. Follow-up computed tomographic imaging revealed a decrease of the maximum aneurysm sac diameter (>5 mm) in 106 (64.2%) patients and an increase in 14 (8.5%) patients. The mean aneurysm diameter significantly decreased (P < .001). Of the factors recorded at baseline, only endoleaks showed a significant correlation with the risk of aneurysm increase during follow-up (P < .001). Adverse anatomy (neck diameter >28 mm, neck length <15 mm, and '5 patent aortic branches) did not adversely influence the aneurysm shrinkage rate, the risk for a secondary procedure, or the clinical success rate. A significantly higher rate of clinical success (P < .05) was observed in patients older than 65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the Talent endograft device is a safe and effective alternative to open surgery for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm. In comparison with first-generation grafts, the device showed superior durability for as long as 5 to 7 years after implantation. Even if prototypes of the Talent device were implanted in this study, the graft was also successfully used in most patients, even in those with adverse anatomy. Because improvements of the endograft have been made to address connecting bar breaks, a lower incidence of graft limb occlusion can be expected in the future. (+info)## Carotid artery stenting in octogenarians is associated with increased adverse outcomes. (7/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting is an increasingly common endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis advocated in high-risk patients despite reports of increased adverse periprocedural outcomes in patients aged >80 years. We sought to evaluate our single institution experience with octogenarians and whether they have an increased incidence of major complications with carotid artery stenting. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-six patients, including 260 patients from 10 regulatory trials, who underwent carotid artery stenting between June 1996 and March 2004 for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Periprocedural (< or =30 days after carotid artery stenting) cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and death outcomes were compared between 87 octogenarians and 295 nonoctogenarians. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis of stroke and death outcomes was performed for a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: All adverse outcomes were significantly higher in octogenarians compared with younger patients: 30-day stroke rate, 8.0% vs 2.7% (P = .02); 30-day stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, 9.2% vs 3.4% (P = .02). Cohorts were similar in terms of gender, comorbidities, antiplatelet medications, symptomatic status, and use of cerebral protection. Octogenarians had a greater incidence of contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion (26% vs 12%, P = .001), atrial fibrillation (21% vs 8%, P = .001), and congestive heart failure (28% vs 15%, P = .007), but a lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia (53% vs 72%, P = .001) and active smoking (8% vs 24%, P = .001). Multivariate analysis of 30-day major adverse outcomes demonstrated an association between age > or =80 and adverse outcome (odds ratio, 2.85; P = .043) as well as a protective effect of the preprocedural use of aspirin (odds ratio, 0.30, P = .027). At 1-year follow-up, only 75% of octogenarians and 87% of nonoctogenarians were free from stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (P = 005, Kaplan-Meier analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarians undergoing carotid artery stenting are at higher risk than nonoctogenarians for periprocedural complications, including neurologic events and death. Major event-free survival at 1 year is also significantly better in nonoctogenarians. These risks should be weighed when considering carotid stenting in elderly patients. (+info)## Management of in-sent restenosis after carotid artery stenting in high-risk patients. (8/10675)

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid bifurcation disease. Although early results of CAS have been promising, long-term clinical outcomes remain less certain. We report herein the frequency, management, and clinical outcome of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after CAS at a single academic institution. METHODS: Clinical records of 208 CAS procedures in 188 patients with carotid stenosis of 80% or greater, including 48 (26.5%) asymptomatic patients, during a 42-month period were analyzed. Follow-up serial carotid duplex ultrasound scans were performed. Selective angiography and repeat intervention were performed when duplex ultrasound scans showed 80% or greater ISR. Treatment outcomes of ISR interventions were analyzed. RESULTS: Over a median 17-month follow-up, 33 (15.9%) ISRs of 60% or greater were found, according to the Doppler criteria. Among them, seven patients (3.4%) with a mean age of 68 years (range, 65-87 years) developed high-grade ISR (> or =80%), and they all underwent further endovascular interventions. Six patients with high-grade ISR were asymptomatic, whereas one remaining patient presented with a transient ischemic attack. Five of seven ISRs occurred within 12 months of CAS, and two occurred at 18 months' follow-up. Treatment indications for initial CAS in these seven patients included recurrent stenosis after CEA (n = 4), radiation-induced stenosis (n = 1), and high-cardiac-risk criteria (n = 2). Treatment modalities for ISR included balloon angioplasty alone (n = 1), cutting balloon angioplasty alone (n = 4), cutting balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1), and balloon angioplasty with stent placement (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in all patients, and no periprocedural complications occurred. Two patients with post-CEA restenosis developed restenosis after ISR interventions, both of whom were successfully treated with cutting balloon angioplasty at 6 and 8 months. The remaining five patients showed an absence of recurrent stenosis or symptoms during a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 3-37 months). By using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the freedom from 80% or greater ISR after CAS procedures at 12, 24, 36, and 42 months was 97%, 97%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that ISR after CAS remains uncommon. Successful treatment of ISR can be achieved by endovascular interventions, which incurred no instance of periprocedural complications in our series. Patients who developed ISR after CEA were likely to develop restenosis after IRS intervention. Diligent ultrasound follow-up scans are important after CAS, particularly in patients with post-CEA restenosis. (+info)###### Kaplan-Meier survival analysis between ARMS expressio | Open-i

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###### The Dependence Phenomenon by Max Meier Glatt | Waterstones

###### Dr. Ariane Kaplan, MD - Ann Arbor, MI - Ophthalmology | Healthgrades.com

###### ਓਸਮੀਅਮ - ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼

###### ಬ್ಲ್ಯೂಟೂತ್ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ

###### Social Networking in Education: Computer Science & IT Journal Article | IGI Global

###### ICBL: Selected Cases

###### Nelson-Aalen estimator

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**estimator "

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**and Nelson-Aalen Estimators". "

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**Survival

**Estimates**". Kysely, Jan; Picek, Jan; ... It is used in survival theory, reliability engineering and life insurance to

**estimate**the cumulative number of expected events ... Beranova, Romana (2010). "

**Estimating**extremes in climate change simulations using the peaks-over-threshold method with a non- ...

###### Nonparametric statistics

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**:

**estimates**the survival function from lifetime data, modeling censoring. *Kendall's tau: measures statistical ... Statistical bootstrap methods:

**estimates**the accuracy/sampling distribution of a statistic. *Cochran's Q: tests whether k ... A histogram is a simple nonparametric

**estimate**of a probability distribution.. *Kernel density estimation provides better ...

**estimates**of the density than histograms.. *Nonparametric regression and semiparametric regression methods have been developed ...

###### Hazard ratio

The resolution of these endpoints are usually depicted using

**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curves. These curves relate the proportion ... Other HR models have different formulations and the interpretation of the parameter**estimates**differs accordingly. In its ... the magnitude of distance between the**Kaplan**-**Meier**plots. Hazard ratios do not reflect a time unit of the study. The difference ... as**estimated**by regression models that treat the log of the HR as a function of a baseline hazard h 0 ( t ) {\displaystyle h_{0 ...###### Censoring (statistics)

An early paper to use the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator for**estimating**censored costs was Quesenberry et al. (1989), however this ... 2012). "Techniques for**estimating**health care costs with censored data: an overview for the health services researcher". ... 1997). "**Estimating**medical costs from incomplete follow-up data". Biometrics. 53 (2): 419-434. doi:10.2307/2533947. JSTOR ... the maximum likelihood**estimate**(MLE) of λ {\displaystyle \lambda } , as follows: l ( λ ) = log ( L ( λ ) ) = k log ( λ ...###### Glutaric aciduria type 1

A

**Kaplan**-**Meier**analysis of the data**estimated**that about 50% of symptomatic cases would die by the age of 25. More recent ...###### Survival analysis

std.err is the standard error of the

**estimated**survival. The standard error of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**product-limit**estimate**it is ... but it is usually**estimated**using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**(KM) curve. The graph shows the KM plot for the aml data and can be ... as determined using the**Kaplan**-**Meier**product-limit**estimate**. ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**curves and log-rank tests are most useful when the ... Survival analysis is used in several ways: To describe the survival times of members of a group Life tables**Kaplan**-**Meier**curves ...###### Dorota Dabrowska

Dabrowska's estimator, from her paper "

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**on the plane" (Annals of Statistics, 1988) is a widely used tool ...###### Epi Info

**Kaplan**

**Meier**and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The software is an open-source project with ... cross tabulations and stratification with

**estimates**of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ...

**Kaplan**

**Meier**and Cox proportional hazard), and analysis of complex survey data. The "Visual Dashboard" module is a lighter- ... cross tabulations and stratification with

**estimates**of odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences, logistic regression ( ...

###### Empirical distribution function

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**estimator for censored processes Survival function van der Vaart, A.W. (1998). Asymptotic statistics. Cambridge ... The empirical distribution function is an

**estimate**of the cumulative distribution function that generated the points in the ... Count data Distribution fitting Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality Empirical probability Empirical process

**Estimating**...

###### Relative survival

The problem with measuring overall survival by using the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**or actuarial survival methods is that the**estimates**... It can be thought of as the**kaplan**-**meier**survivor function for a particular year, divided by the expected survival rate in that ... Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "**Estimating**and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer ... There are several software suites available to**estimate**relative survival rates. Regression modelling can be performed using ...###### Nonparametric statistics

... tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs have identical effects

**Kaplan**-**Meier**:**estimates**the survival function ... A histogram is a simple nonparametric**estimate**of a probability distribution. Kernel density estimation provides better ...**estimates**the accuracy/sampling distribution of a statistic Cochran's Q: tests whether k treatments in randomized block designs ...**estimates**of the density than histograms. Nonparametric regression and semiparametric regression methods have been developed ...**Kaplan**-**Meier** estimator

The

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator can be seen as a "plug-in estimator" where each q. (. s. ). {\displaystyle q(s)}. is**estimated**based ... Derivation of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator[edit]. Here, we show two derivations of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. Both are based on ... arguments can calculate or plot the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator.[20]. *StatsDirect: The**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator is implemented in the ... The**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator,[1][2] also known as the product limit estimator, is a non-parametric statistic used to**estimate**the ...###### Predictive analytics

Some of the models commonly used are

**Kaplan**-**Meier**and Cox proportional hazard model (non parametric). Classification and ... Time series models**estimate**difference equations containing stochastic components. Two commonly used forms of these models are ... which transforms information about the binary dependent variable into an unbounded continuous variable and**estimates**a regular ...###### Adrian Baddeley

Journal of Microscopy, 142:259-276, 1986 A.J. Baddeley and R.D. Gill,

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimators of interpoint distance ... Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 42:283-322, 2000 A. Baddeley, Time-invariance**estimating**equations. Bernoulli ...###### Circulating tumor cell

Figure 2:

**Kaplan****Meier**Analysis of overall survival before starting a new line of therapy for patients with metastatic breast, ... It is**estimated**that among the cells that have detached from the primary tumor, only 0.01% can form metastases.[30] ...###### Logrank test

Mathematics portal

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator Hazard ratio Mantel, Nathan (1966). "Evaluation of survival data and two new rank ... The logrank test statistic compares**estimates**of the hazard functions of the two groups at each observed event time. It is ... The logrank test is based on the same assumptions as the**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curve-namely, that censoring is unrelated to ... is the**estimate**of the hazard ratio, then log λ ^ ≈ Z 4 / D {\displaystyle \log {\hat {\lambda }}\approx Z\,{\sqrt {4/D}}} . ...###### Rosenwald School

ISBN 0-252-06156-X. Brooker, Russell;

**Kaplan**, Fran. "The Rosenwald Schools: An Impressive Legacy of Black-Jewish Collaboration ... Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, "The Impact of Rosenwald Schools on Black Achievement", September 2011**Meier**, Allison C. (2020 ... doi:10.1086/662962 Aaronson, Daniel; Mazumder, Bhashkar; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J. (2020-05-04). "**Estimating**the Effect ...###### List of statistics articles

... means algorithm redirects to k-means clustering K-means++ K-medians clustering K-medoids K-statistic Kalman filter

**Kaplan**-**Meier**... software Stein's example Proof of Stein's example Stein's lemma Stein's unbiased risk**estimate**Steiner system Stemplot - see ... and residuals in statistics Errors-in-variables models An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances**Estimating**... Generalized chi-squared distribution Generalized Dirichlet distribution Generalized entropy index Generalized**estimating**...###### Randomized controlled trial

For time-to-event outcome data that may be censored, survival analysis (e.g.,

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimators and Cox proportional ...**estimates**of effect may be biased if not adjusted for the covariates (which may be unmeasured and therefore impossible to ... "discrepancies beyond chance do occur and differences in**estimated**magnitude of treatment effect are very common" between ... "Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect**estimates**in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta- ...###### Jurimetrics

... normal distribution Survival analysis

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator, proportional hazards model, Weibull distribution Accounting fraud ... this is likely to be a high**estimate**, given the predominance of males in the technology industry. Then the probability of ...###### List of important publications in statistics

JSTOR 2281868 Description: First description of the now ubiquitous

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator of survival functions from data with ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to**estimate**subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ...**Kaplan**, EL and**Meier**, P Publication data: 1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association, volume 53, pages 457-481. ... Peirce and Jastrow use logistic regression to**estimate**subjective probabilities of subjects's judgments of the heavier of two ...###### Cure

The comparison is usually made through the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator approach. The simplest cure rate model was published by ... ISBN 0-89838-555-5. Lambert PC, Thompson JR, Weston CL, Dickman PW (2007). "**Estimating**and modeling the cure fraction in ...###### List of Jews born in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union

Belarusian-born Israeli US middleweight and World Boxing Association champion super welterweight Louis

**Kaplan**("Kid**Kaplan**"), ... It is**estimated**that more than half died directly as a result of the Shoah. Georgy Arbatov, Soviet politician, academic and ... born Sussele-**Meier**Davidoff), former tobacco manufacturer, known as "King of Cigars" Bernard Delfont, impresario Mikhail ... rabbi Fanny**Kaplan**, would-be assassin of Lenin Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Rebbe of the Chabad-Lubavitch branch of Hasidic ...###### Cholesteatoma

"The investigation of the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using

**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival analysis". Otology & Neurotology. 29 (6 ... In one study, the number of new cases of cholesteatoma in Iowa was**estimated**in 1975-6 to be just under one new case per 10,000 ...###### Survival function

In these situations, the most common method to model the survival function is the non-parametric

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. Every ... as**estimated**using the exponential curve fit to the data. An alternative to graphing the probability that the failure time is ... Mathematics portal Failure rate Frequency of exceedance**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator Mean time to failure Residence time (statistics ...###### Ancel Keys

**Kaplan**

**Meier**graphs showed no mortality benefit for the intervention group in the full randomized cohort or for any ... While doing fish research at Scripps, Keys would use statistical regressions to

**estimate**the weight of fish from their length, ...

###### Pogrom

...

**estimated**at more than 100,000. Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish History and You, KTAV, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42:**estimated**at ...**Kaplan**, Robert. D. "In Defense of Empire." The Atlantic Apr. 2014: 13-15 Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv. Tadeusz ...**Meier**, Anna: "Die Intelligenzaktion: die Vernichtung der polnischen Oberschicht im Gau Danzig-Westpreusen" VDM Verlag Dr. ...**estimated**at 56,000 dead. Historians**estimating**that around 100,000 Jews were killed include: Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate ...###### Shirazi people

According to Irving

**Kaplan**, a US Foreign Office official, prior to the 7th century, the coastal areas frequented by the Persian ... A French visitor to this Sultanate, named Morice**estimated**that about a tenth of the population was Swahili-speaking Arabs and ...**Meier**, Prita. "Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere." (Bloomington Indiana: Indiana University press, 2016) Pg. ... Shimaore is spoken on Mayotte, and has an**estimated**136,500 total speakers. Shimwali is spoken on Mwali, and has about 28,700 ...###### The use of MS Chart Control and VB.NET for Statistical Purposes: Plotting **Kaplan**-**Meier** **Estimate**. - CodeProject

... create life tables using the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**Formula and plot the survival curve. The whole operation is performed through a user ...**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. wikipedia.org. [Online] 2012. 4. Dunn, Steve. Survival Curves: Accrual and The**Kaplan**-**Meier****Estimate**. ... The use of MS Chart Control and VB.NET for Statistical Purposes: Plotting**Kaplan**-**Meier****Estimate**.. ... "Please select a table or query from the database to**estimate****Kaplan****Meier**curves from: " Retrieve the tables & queries schema ...###### topic:"**Kaplan**-**Meier** **Estimate**" found 5 records • Arctic Health

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**Estimate**Male Middle Aged Mitral Valve - surgery Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Recurrence Risk ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**Estimate**Male Middle Aged Patient Selection Pilot Projects Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Pulmonary ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**Estimate**Logistic Models Male Middle Aged Multivariate Analysis Odds Ratio Prospective Studies Pulmonary Veins - ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**Estimate**Male Middle Aged Pilot Projects Predictive value of tests Prospective Studies Pulmonary Veins - ...

**Kaplan**-**Meier** **estimates** of breast cancer-free survival | Open-i

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ... fig02:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ... fig02:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of breast cancer-free survival in relation to COX2 rs5277 genotype and ER status. There was a ...

**Kaplan**-**Meier** **estimates** of overall survival according to | Open-i

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1, (e) ... fig5:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1 ... fig5:

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**of overall survival according to gene expression levels of (a) RRM2, (b) TS, (c) ERCC1, (d) RRM1 ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours.For all ...

###### Comparing Weibull model and **Kaplan**-**Meier** **estimate** | R

**Kaplan**-**Meier** estimator - Wikipedia

The

**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator can be seen as a "plug-in estimator" where each q. (. s. ). {\displaystyle q(s)}. is**estimated**based ... Derivation of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator[edit]. Here, we show two derivations of the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator. Both are based on ... arguments can calculate or plot the**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator.[20]. *StatsDirect: The**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator is implemented in the ... The**Kaplan**-**Meier**estimator,[1][2] also known as the product limit estimator, is a non-parametric statistic used to**estimate**the ...**Kaplan** **Meier** for right and/or left and/or interval censored data - File Exchange - MATLAB Central

S : the survival

**estimate**%SE : the standard error of the**estimate**%L : the lower limit of the corresponding 95% confidence ...**Kaplan****Meier**for right and/or left and/or interval censored data version 1.0.0.0 (3.79 KB) by Leonidas Bantis ... If only right censoring is present then the usual**Kaplan****Meier**is employed %and there is no need to use this code since MATLAB ... censoring interval censoring**kaplan****meier**left censoring product limit est... right censoring survival ...###### 12. Survival analysis | The BMJ

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival curve. We look at the data using a

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival curve. Suppose that the survival times, ... is

**estimated**by. where is the largest survival time less than or equal to t and is the number of subjects alive just before ... If the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival curves cross then this is clear departure from proportional hazards, and the log rank test should ... We first order the data for the two groups combined, as shown in Table 12.3 . As for the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival curve, we now ...

###### Newest 'survival-analysis' Questions - Stack Overflow

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival

**estimates**for multiple variables in R. I am trying to find

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**for multiple variables ... Plot of

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**curve inconsistent with generated statistics. I am plotting a

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**(KM) curve for the readmission ... Creating a

**Kaplan**

**Meier**plot with Survival probabilities at time points. Im trying to create a plot in R that would generate a ... I am involved in a project where we are plotting survival curves for an event with a pretty low incidence, and the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**...

###### New methods for **estimating** follow-up rates in cohort studies | SpringerLink

A common method for

**estimating**the follow-up rate, the... ... 2, the reverse**Kaplan**-**Meier**Survival curve**estimates**a higher ... Alternatively, a reverse**Kaplan**-**Meier**(KM) survival curve has also been used to assess the length as well as the completeness ... Reverse**Kaplan**-**Meier**(KM) survival curve. The reverse KM survival curve is constructed by reversing "censor" and "event" of the ... Person-time Loss to follow-up Median survival time Reverse**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curve Competing risk ...###### Plus it

C,

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**of PFS. The**estimated**percentage of progression-free patients is shown in dependence on time. ... we computed the**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**of the resulting 2 groups. Further, to**estimate**the predictive properties of NaR:NaT for ...**Kaplan**-**Meier****Estimates**Based on NaR:NaT.. To use the prognostic information of the IDH mutation status, we used the NaR:NaT ...**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**demonstrated a significantly longer PFS in patients with NaR:NaT below threshold. The established ...###### CDC Library: COVID-19 Science Update: 09/08/2020

###### Gene-Gene Interaction Analysis for the Survival Phenotype Based on the **Kaplan**-**Meier** Median **Estimate** - PubMed

The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the

**Kaplan**-**Meier**median survival time as a clas … ... Gene-Gene Interaction Analysis for the Survival Phenotype Based on the**Kaplan**-**Meier**Median**Estimate**Mira Park 1 , Jung Wun Lee ... Gene-Gene Interaction Analysis for the Survival Phenotype Based on the**Kaplan**-**Meier**Median**Estimate**Mira Park et al. Biomed Res ... The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the**Kaplan**-**Meier**median survival time as a classifier. The KM-MDR method ...###### Impact of ductal resection margin status on long-term survival in patients undergoing resection for extrahepatic...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival

**estimates**. The median length of survival was 45 months with a cumulative 10-year survival rate of 40% in ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival

**estimates**. (A) The median length of survival was 99 months with a cumulative 10-year survival rate of 23 ... Survival curves were constructed using the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**method and differences in survival were evaluated using the log-rank ...

###### Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) | Edwards Lifesciences

###### Tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort: long-term incidence and risk factors | BMC...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survival probability

**estimates**. The TB-free survival probability for the total cohort over the 10-year follow-up ... The

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**survivor function was used to

**estimate**TB-free survival probabilities. TB-free survival was further stratified ...

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**plots of tuberculosis (TB)-free survival proportion in the ClinSurv HIV Cohort, Germany 2001-2011. (a) among all ... It has a population of 80.5 million of whom about 8% are foreign nationals and 20% are

**estimated**to have a migration background ...

###### Intravenous desmoteplase in patients with acute ischaemic stroke selected by MRI perfusion-diffusion weighted imaging or...

###### Overall Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma. - PubMed - NCBI

Panel A shows the

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**of overall survival among patients with BRAF mutations. Patients were followed for a ... Panel B shows the**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**of overall survival. The median overall survival was not reached in the nivolumab-plus ... Panel B shows the**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**of overall survival among patients without BRAF mutations. The median overall survival ... Panel A shows the**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**of progression-free survival as assessed by the investigator. Patients were followed ...###### DNA polymerase ε and δ proofreading suppress discrete mutator and cancer phenotypes in mice | PNAS

A)

**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival**estimates**. Mice were followed for long-term survival and observed daily until moribund or unexpected ... 2); equivalent yeast alleles also exhibit partial dominance (7, 9, 10). We**estimate**that 1-10 mutations are introduced for ... and mutation rates were determined by maximum likelihood**estimates**. Microsatellite and Hprt mutations were identified by PCR ... and spontaneous mutant rates were determined by fluctuation analyses using maximum likelihood**estimates**. Data are from multiple ...###### Doxil - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimates**.. ‡. p-value is based on the stratified log-rank test.. §. Hazard ratio is based on Cox proportional- ...

**Kaplan**

**Meier**

**estimate**.. †. Hazard ratio based on stratified Cox proportional hazards regression. A hazard ratio , 1 indicates ... it is not always possible to reliably

**estimate**their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. ...

###### Simple noninvasive systems predict long-term outcomes of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

###### Venclexta (Venetoclax Tablets): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning

aKaplan-

**Meier****estimate**.. bHR**estimate**is based on Cox-proportional hazards model stratified by 17p deletion, risk status, and ... IRC-assessed;**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimate**.. bHR**estimate**is based on Cox-proportional hazards model stratified by Binet Stage and ... Figure 1.**Kaplan**-**Meier**Curve of IRC-Assessed Progression-free Survival in CLL14 ... Figure 2.**Kaplan**-**Meier**Curve of IRC-Assessed Progression-free Survival in MURANO ...###### Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis

###### Intravenous Weekly Topotecan In Subjects With Recurrent Or Persistent Endometrial Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

###### Extended transdermal contraceptive regimens - FRIEDMAN ANDREW JOSEPH

###### Zydelig (Idelalisib Tablets): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**

**estimate**. The median time to response was 1.9 months (range 1.6-8.3).. ... Figure 1 :

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**Plot of IRC-Assessed PFS for Study 312-0116. ... Updated efficacy results are shown in Table 7, and the

**Kaplan**-

**Meier**curve for PFS is shown in Figure 1. ... Median

**estimated**Creatinine Clearance (eCrCl) was 63.6 mL/min, with 41% of patients having an eCrCl of ,60 mL/min. At screening ...

###### BIOLUX P-I

###### Gemcitabine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

b

**Kaplan**-**Meier****estimates**.. c N=number of patients.. d No progression at last visit; remains alive. ... The**Kaplan**-**Meier**survival curve is shown in Figure 3. Median survival time on the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 9.0 months ... The**Kaplan**-**Meier**curve for survival is shown in Figure 4. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed with either ... Figure 1:**Kaplan**-**Meier**Curve of Progression Free Survival in Gemcitabine Plus Carboplatin Versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer ...###### Estimator8

- A research paper, published by Kaplan and Meier in 1958 and cited more than 33,000 times [2] presenting their "famous" survival curve estimator, led to a major advance in survival analysis. (codeproject.com)
- The Kaplan-Meier estimator , [1] [2] also known as the product limit estimator , is a non-parametric statistic used to estimate the survival function from lifetime data. (wikipedia.org)
- The estimator is named after Edward L. Kaplan and Paul Meier , who each submitted similar manuscripts to the Journal of the American Statistical Association . (wikipedia.org)
- A plot of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is a series of declining horizontal steps which, with a large enough sample size, approaches the true survival function for that population. (wikipedia.org)
- In order to generate a Kaplan-Meier estimator, at least two pieces of data are required for each patient (or each subject): the status at last observation (event occurrence or right-censored) and the time to event (or time to censoring). (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we show two derivations of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. (wikipedia.org)
- And \hat S(U_i) is the Kaplan-Meier estimator for the censoring distribution. (talkstats.com)
- To understand the power of the Kaplan-Meier estimator, it is worthwhile to first describe a naive estimator of the survival function. (wikipedia.org)

###### Curves6

- Plot the survival curves you get from the two estimates. (datacamp.com)
- I am involved in a project where we are plotting survival curves for an event with a pretty low incidence, and the Kaplan-Meier curves (plotted using survminer) are pretty flat. (stackoverflow.com)
- In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. (nih.gov)
- In randomised controlled trials (RCTs), time-to-event endpoints, such as overall survival or time to disease occurrence, are shown as Kaplan-Meier curves. (bmj.com)
- Kaplan-Meier curves with (a) proportional hazards (b) curves that cross over, and (c) curves that separate after four months. (bmj.com)
- Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted. (bmj.com)

###### Estimators1

- In other fields, Kaplan-Meier estimators may be used to measure the length of time people remain unemployed after a job loss, [3] the time-to-failure of machine parts, or how long fleshy fruits remain on plants before they are removed by frugivores . (wikipedia.org)

###### Regression3

- HR is the ratio of hazards between two treatment groups, estimated using a Cox regression model. (bmj.com)
- Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between prediagnostic metformin exposure (versus nonmetformin antidiabetic drugs) and colorectal cancer-specific mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
- Proportional hazard regression analysis estimated prognostic factors associated with bone metastases. (medscimonit.com)

###### Median3

- Alternatively, the median follow-up time does not indicate the completeness of follow-up, and the reverse Kaplan-Meier based method and Clark's Completeness Index (CCI) also have limitations. (springer.com)
- The proposed method, referred to as KM-MDR, uses the Kaplan-Meier median survival time as a classifier. (cdc.gov)
- The Kaplan-Meier estimate for median overall survival was 10.7 months. (uptodate.com)

###### Mortality1

- The E-value for the point estimate was 2.61: this implies that residual confounding could explain the association if there is an unmeasured covariate with a relative risk of at least 2.61 for both mortality and undergoing invasive management. (bmj.com)

###### Proportional hazards1

- HRs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by treatment protocol. (eurekalert.org)

###### Incidence1

- The annual crude incidence of stroke in Perth, Western Australia, has been estimated as 178 per 100 000. (mja.com.au)

###### Plot2

- We used VB.NET and MS Chart in a Web Application to extract the data from a user-uploaded or online database, create life tables using the Kaplan-Meier Formula and plot the survival curve. (codeproject.com)
- An example of a Kaplan-Meier plot for two conditions associated with patient survival. (wikipedia.org)

###### Data7

- An important advantage of the Kaplan-Meier curve is that the method can take into account some types of censored data , particularly right-censoring , which occurs if a patient withdraws from a study, is lost to follow-up, or is alive without event occurrence at last follow-up. (wikipedia.org)
- Kaplan Meier for right and/or left and/or interval censored data (https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/41325-kaplan-meier-for-right-and-or-left-and-or-interval-censored-data), MATLAB Central File Exchange. (mathworks.com)
- We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (bmj.com)
- Therefore, two estimation methods are proposed: a formal person-time method (FPT) in which the expected total follow-up time is calculated using the event rate estimated from the observed data, and a simplified person-time method (SPT) that avoids estimation of the event rate by assigning full follow-up time to all events. (springer.com)
- Estimate a Kaplan-Meier by hand for small samples of data. (coursera.org)
- The aim of our study was to estimate the effect of invasive compared with medical management on survival in patients with NSTEMI aged ≥80 years, using routine clinical data. (bmj.com)
- The challenge is to estimate S ( t ) {\displaystyle S(t)} given this data. (wikipedia.org)

###### Method6

- A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the "Percentage Method", defined as the fraction of all enrollees who developed the event of interest or had complete follow-up, can severely underestimate the degree of follow-up. (springer.com)
- a very commonly used technique called the Kaplan-Meier method. (coursera.org)
- Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. (mdpi.com)
- Rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank. (eurekalert.org)
- OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. (frontiersin.org)
- The proportion of children found to be infected by age 6 months in each treatment group was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. (cdc.gov)

###### Analyses1

- Outcome was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. (frontiersin.org)

###### Cumulative5

- The "Cumulative Probability Estimates" table is also created in Output 48.5.2 . (sas.com)
- summary measure that estimates what we call the cumulative survival. (coursera.org)
- Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to describe cumulative survival. (issuu.com)
- Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative risk will also be presented. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- It is used in survival theory, reliability engineering and life insurance to estimate the cumulative number of expected events. (wikipedia.org)

###### Prognostic factors1

- Multivariate analysis identified the protein overexpression of RRM2 and TS as independent prognostic factors of shorter overall survival (OS).Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours.For all of the biomarkers except TUBB3, the OS trends relative to the gene expression levels were in agreement with those relative to the protein expression levels. (nih.gov)

###### Estimation1

- Explain how censored observations are used in the Kaplan-Meier estimation process. (coursera.org)

###### Adverse1

- The Kaplan-Meier fraction of major adverse cardiac events at 7 years was 57.0% in the PCI-only vs. 50.0% in the FFR-guided group (P = 0.016). (biomedsearch.com)

###### Patients5

- Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours. (nih.gov)
- A weighted pooled estimate of the proportion testing positive was calculated for studies with at least 10 patients. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, compared with other comorbidity indices, such as the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI), Kaplan-Feinstein (KF), and Satariano index (SI), FCI was better able to stratify risk in patients with MM [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The study is event-driven and 19000 randomised patients are estimated to be required in order to collect 1034 adjudicated primary endpoint events. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- With an annual event rate of 2.5% in the placebo treatment group, 19000 patients, randomised in a 1:1 ratio, are estimated to provide the required number of primary events after receiving study medication for an anticipated average of 28 months. (utsouthwestern.edu)

###### Analysis4

- Estimated utilizing Kaplan-Meier analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In the book Applied Longitudinal Analysis, 2nd Edition there is an example in the chapter 'Marginal Models: Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE)' in 'Muscatine Coronary Risk Factor Study' sub-section. (talkstats.com)
- The haemoptysis-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis at 86.9% (95% CI 83.7% to 90.2%) at 1 year, 79.4% (74.8% to 84.3%) at 2 years and 57.6% (45.1% to 73.4%) at 3 years. (bmj.com)
- Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the overall survival. (medscimonit.com)

###### Statistical1

- The use of MS Chart Control and VB.NET for Statistical Purposes: Plotting Kaplan-Meier Estimate. (codeproject.com)

###### Ratios1

- We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) comparing invasive with medical management. (bmj.com)

###### Parametric3

- The estimated CDF, a line representing the maximum likelihood fit, and pointwise parametric confidence bands are plotted in the body of Output 48.5.1 . (sas.com)
- Suppose a researcher estimated a parameter in parametric way with correct distributional assumption. (talkstats.com)
- Another researcher estimated the same parameter in non-parametric way. (talkstats.com)

###### Disease2

- Lower extremity arterial obstruction leading to ischemic claudication or critical limb ischemia is generally caused by atherosclerotic obstructive disease and affects an estimated 40 million Americans where up to 10 million are symptomatic. (ahajournals.org)
- Estimates for time to TB disease diagnosis not attributed to recent transmission for non-US-born persons, stratified by World Health Organization region, United States, 2011-2018. (cdc.gov)

###### Statistic1

- The null hypothesis of no treatment effect was tested by using a normally distributed Z statistic computed from these estimates. (cdc.gov)

###### Population1

- It has a population of 80.5 million of whom about 8% are foreign nationals and 20% are estimated to have a migration background, predominantly from Turkey, Poland and Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Parameters1

- I want to estimate the parameters. (talkstats.com)

###### Event1

- which we're going to estimate through a sample, remaining event free. (coursera.org)

###### Variables2

- I am trying to find Kaplan-Meier estimates for multiple variables. (stackoverflow.com)
- He examines Kaplan-Meier estimates and compares survival by grouping variables. (jmp.com)

###### Cases2

- According to WHO (2012) [ 2 ], an estimated 1.1 million new TB cases were reported among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 Around 90% of these acute stroke events are estimated to result in hospital admission, with rapidly fatal cases not admitted. (mja.com.au)

###### Distribution1

- When no truncation or censoring occurs, the Kaplan-Meier curve is the complement of the empirical distribution function . (wikipedia.org)

###### Maximum1

- Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Estimate of Variance Component. (talkstats.com)

###### Groups1

- Kaplan-Meier was plotted to compare the rate of healing of the lesion between the two groups, and the log-rank test was used to test the difference in the healing rate of the two groups. (diabetesjournals.org)

###### Approach1

- using the aforementioned Kaplan-Meier approach. (coursera.org)