• Subject: Re: The many lengths of Lua
• From: Russell Haley <russ.haley@...>
• Date: Wed, 14 Sep 2016 18:33:41 -0400

```Thanks for the great deep dive! I'm going to save this email for reference.

Russ

Sent from my BlackBerry 10 smartphone on the Virgin Mobile network.
Original Message
From: Soni L.
Sent: Wednesday, September 14, 2016 3:00 PM
To: Lua mailing list
Subject: The many lengths of Lua

Lua has many lengths. From string lengths to table lengths, from number
lengths to sequence lengths, from sequence lengths to proper sequence
lengths. They are the many lengths of Lua.

The # operator returns string lengths and table lengths. It is the
standard length operator, and it's what you usually use to get the
length of an object.

The string.len() function returns string lengths. It typechecks the
argument to make sure it's a string, but otherwise returns the same
value as #.

There are various types of table length. Some of them are sequences,
some of them are not. Some have nothing to do with length, but rather
with count.

The simplest length is the one provided by ipairs(). It only iterates
the "proper sequence" part of a table. That is, it iterates the set of
contiguous positive integer keys of a table.[1]
When in doubt, this is the length you should rely on. Don't do `for
i=1,#t`, but instead use `for i,v in ipairs(t)`.

Another simple length is the one provided by pairs(). This is actually a
count. If for every iteration of pairs() you increment a counter, you'll
end up with the number of keys in a table. It is rarely used, but can be
useful sometimes.

If you want a manual table length, the simplest way to do it is probably
to just use an `n` field. While Lua supports this usage, the standard
library doesn't, so you have to deal with it manually. While the
standard library doesn't natively support the `n` field, some functions,
such as table.pack(), may emit it.

Another length option is the highest key of a table. You can get this
length by combining pairs() and math.max(). It can be useful in some
niche applications but it's quite slow, so consider a manual length (see

By combining pairs() with type(), you can get the number of non-integer
keys in a table. While this count does exist, I have never seen it used
in practice.

The length operator, #, can also be applied to tables. If your table has
a positive integer key, and there's a smaller possitive integer that is
not a key (i.e. the value associated with it is `nil`), then this
shouldn't be used. When using a table without manual length, this
operator is usually faster than any other method[2], but it does have
the aforementioned drawback. This table length is the only table length
that is unspecified for some tables.

Finally, you can also use your own length algorithm. Use this if you
want fast runtime, but the drawbacks of the length operator make it

And these are the many lengths of Lua!

[1] - I'm not sure how many people know this, but this property
(stopping on first `nil`) is actually described in the manual. That is,
ipairs() on a table with "holes" is actually well-defined.
[2] - The Lua manual doesn't guarantee O(log n) time complexity for the
length operator. If you want guaranteed O(log n) runtime, use your own
length algorithm. This means # could have O(n) time complexity (i.e.
equivalent to ipairs()), or even O(m) where m = the number of keys in
the table (i.e. equivalent to pairs() + math.max()).

PS: Sorry for the wall of text.

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```