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That would be handy, especially when the table name is not just "t",
but a complex expression like "my_object.get_table()".

However I don't really like the syntax, which looks incomplete.
It could be better expressed as :

  t[end] = 'syntactic sugar'

Because "end" is a keyword, there is no ambiguity in the grammar, and
the intention is more clear.

In MATLAB, "end" can be used in a similar but more general way. It
represent the current length in the current dimension.
Examples in this language :
 a = [11 12 13; 21 22 23]
    a =
        11 12 13
         21 22 23
     ans = 23
 a(end, end-1)
    ans = 22
    a =
        11 12 13
         21 22 23
         0    0  33

If we like that feature and want it in Lua also, the syntactic sugar
would become a bit longer :
  t[end+1] = 'syntactic sugar'
for appending, but now allows for example
  print( t[end] )
to display the last argument, or
  t[end], t[end-1] = t[end-1], t[end]
to swap the last two values.